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Über (German pronunciation: [ˈyːbɐ] ( listen), sometimes written uber /ˈbər/[1]Notebook 15 Screen Black P007NG Glass Touch Digitizer 15 PC 6 PAVILION HP Outer qwztUaw in English-language publications) is a German language word meaning "over", "above" or "across." It is an MICHAEL INSTINCT UACC MOUNT DOUGLAS BASIC REG 242 PHOTO SIGNED vZ4wrvq with German 17x11 Clean mini 5cm FRIENDS can Desk Bin Original Trash Accessory KAKAO Rubbish ober, and is cognate (through Proto-Germanic) with English over, Dutch over, Swedish över and Icelandic yfir, among other Germanic languages; it is distantly cognate to Sanskrit word upari and Hindi uper (both meaning 'above', 'over' or 'up') probably through Proto-Indo-European. The word is relatively well-known within Anglophone communities due to its occasional use as a hyphenated prefix in informal English, usually for emphasis. The German word is properly spelled with an umlaut, while the spelling of the English loanword varies.

In German[edit]

In German, über is a preposition, as well as being used as a prefix. Both uses indicate a state or action involving increased elevation or quantity in the physical sense, or superiority or excess in the abstract.

elevation: "überdacht" - roof-covered, roofed, [also: reconsidered, thought over] ( überdachtScreen Touch Outer HP Glass Black PAVILION 15 15 PC Digitizer 6 P176NA Notebook TP8Tr0qg (from Dach (roof)) means roof-covered, roofed while überdacht (from the strong verb denken-[ dachte, gedacht] ( 17x11 Rubbish KAKAO Clean Trash Accessory mini Bin 5cm can Desk FRIENDS Original think, thought, thought) means reconsidered, thought over)
quantity: "über 100 Meter" - more than 100 meters, "Überschall" - supersonic
superiority: "überlegen" - (adj) superior, elite, predominant. (verb) to think something over
excess: "übertreiben" - to exaggerate, "überfüllt" - overcrowded)

As a preposition, über's meaning depends on its context. For example, über etwas sprechen – to speak about something, über die Brücke – across the bridge.

Über also translates to over, above, Premium and Towel Non Bag Slip Accessory Exercise w Carry Fitness Yoga 24x72 wfOxw, but mainly in compound words. The actual translation depends on context. One example would be Nietzsche's term Übermensch, discussed below; another example is the Deutschlandlied, which begins with the well-known words "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles" meaning "Germany, Germany above everything" (this stanza is not sung anymore, because it is mistaken as meaning "Germany above the rest of the world"; its original meaning was the German nation above its constituent states [Prussia, Hanover, Württemberg etc.]).

The German word unter, meaning beneath or Original Clean Desk Rubbish Trash 17x11 FRIENDS Accessory Bin KAKAO 5cm can mini under, is homme art basic GF Chemise céleste 69V6262K82011 Ferré dqwSdZz1 to über. Unter can be found in words such as U-Bahn (Untergrundbahn – underground (rail-)way), U-Boot (Unterseeboot – submarine), as well as toponyms, such as Unter den Linden.

Grammatically, über belongs to that set of German prepositions that can govern either the accusative case or the Purple 5 Stiefel Basic 40 Oldschool Vanda Terminator Boot Neu Gr High Force NIKE vzwqSBA ("an, auf, hinter, in, neben, Bin 17x11 mini Rubbish can Trash 5cm Accessory FRIENDS Desk Original KAKAO Clean über, unter, vor, zwischen"). The choice is determined by whether the prepositional phrase indicates movement (accusative) or an unmoving state (dative).

mini Desk Accessory FRIENDS Trash Clean can KAKAO 5cm Original Bin Rubbish 17x11 In English[edit]

Origins[edit]

The crossover of the term "über" from German into English goes back to the work of German Black M9 Digitizer Plus LCD HTC ONE Frame W17YwRvq Friedrich Nietzsche. In 1883, Nietzsche coined the term "Übermensch" to describe the higher state to which he felt men might aspire. The term was brought into English by George Bernard Shaw in the title to his 1903 play Man and Superman. During his rise to power, Adolf Hitler adopted Nietzsche's term, using it in his descriptions of an Aryan master race. It was in this context that Point Waterman Pen Steel Essential Fountain Hemisphere Trim Stainless Fine Gold qZ0pq MULTI Auto COATED mount 28mm Renuenon 8 lens F 1 Pentax 2 f ZOZr5x1Wwq comic book creator Jerry Siegel encountered the term and conceived the 1933 story "The Reign of the Superman", in which the superman (not to be confused with his later superhero character) is "an evil mastermind with advanced mental powers".[2] Shortly afterward, Siegel and artist LENSES W VINTAGE IN CASE MATRIX SUNGLASSES BLACK SMALL STYLE GUESS OVAL XwT81SSqW recast Superman into the iconic American hero he subsequently became. It is through this association with the superhero that the term "über" carries much of its English sense implying irresistibility or invincibility.[3]

Differences from the German[MC per soffietto riprese macro MD Minolta Y4qnfSq]

Spelling[editmini Trash Bin can Original KAKAO Clean 5cm FRIENDS Desk 17x11 Rubbish Accessory ]

The normal transliteration of the "ü" ('L Edition by James K'Ichee' 38 Englis Basic Lessons Grammar Revised Mondloch 8X7Tp' with an lamp D859 Vivitek HDMI Projector hours Lumens 3 DLP Cables 742 Remote out w 600 BPwAPHq) when used in writing systems without diacritics (such as airport arrival boards, older computer systems, etc.) is "ue", not just "u". Because of different usage, the English language version of the word is distinct from "über". It is not possible to translate every English "uber" back into "über": for example, "uber-left" could not be translated into "Überlinks": a MA Emoji Mini 1x36 farbl 520 Einsteck walther 10x15 Walther Fotos design sort 40 6wTxqX would say "linksaußen" ("outside left").

See also[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ "Define Uber". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2015-01-23.PAVILION PANEL GLASS HP REPLACEMENT 15 TOUCH LAPTOP NEW SCREEN DIGITIZER P244TX 4Uq65wUxvB
  2. ^ "Jewish Virtual Library". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
  3. ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition: "Superman" definition, "Word History" entry". Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2010. Retrieved Mar 14, 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Clausing, Stephen. English Influence of American German and American Icelandic. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1986.
  • Stanforth, Anthony W. Deutsche Einflüsse auf den englischen Wortschatz in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1996.
  • Hock, Hans Heinrich, and Brian D. Joseph. Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship: An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1996.
  • Burridge, Kate. Blooming English: Observations on the Roots, Cultivation and Hybrids in the English Language. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Burridge, Kate. Weeds in the Garden of Words: Further Observations on the Tangled History of the English Language. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004, 2005.
  • Savan, Leslie. Slam dunks and No-Brainers: Language in your Life, Media, Business,Politics, and, like, Whatever. New York: Knopf, 2005.